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焦虑:你应该了解的最新10大心理学研究
来源:    作者:    发布日期: 2016-4-29 18:24:00    浏览次数: 2242

译者: RK翔 原作者:Dr Jeremy Dea
New ways to reduce anxiety, why some people are so anxious and more…
减轻焦虑的新方法,为什么有人如此的焦虑,以及更多精彩后续…
Ten new psychology studies reveal why some people are anxious, how to reduce anxiety and much more.
最新10大心理学研究揭示了为何有人会焦虑,以及如何减轻焦虑等相关相信。
1. Acts of kindness can help reduce social anxiety
1. 友善的行为可以帮助减少社交焦虑
Performing acts of kindness can help people with social anxiety mingle with others more easily.
友善地对待他人能让社交焦虑的人更顺利地和他们打成一片。
People recruited into the study were put into one of three groups for four weeks:
试验中,实验对象被分成了三组,进行为期四周的试验:
One group performed acts of kindness, like doing their roommates’ dishes.
第一组表现友善,例如清洗室友的碗碟。
Another group were exposed to various social interactions without the acts of kindness.
第二张在各项社交活动中,避免表现友善。
A third group, who did nothing special, acted as a control.
第三组,不做特别要求,作为对照组。
At the end of the study it was those who’d performed the acts of kindness who felt more comfortable in social interactions.
最终研究表明,友善的一组觉得在社交活动中更自如更自在。
2. Three dietary supplements which reduce anxiety
2. 三种膳食补充剂帮助减轻焦虑
Dietary supplements which contain passionflower, kava or combinations of L-lysine and L-arginine can help reduce anxiety, according to a review published in the Nutrition Journal.
根据营养学期刊发布一篇综述,含有西番茄,卡瓦或者L-赖氨酸和左型精氨酸的膳食补充能帮助减轻焦虑。
The supplements generally had mild to moderate effects without producing any serious side-effects.
总体而言,这些补充剂具有一定的效果,而且没有任何副作用。
Of the supplements included, kava has been the most extensively studied.
那些具有此类补充剂(的食物),人们对kava的研究最为全面广泛。
The researchers found that taking kava on its own…
研究人员发现,食用kava本身…
“… significantly reduced anxiety symptoms in a variety of patient types. This provides good evidence for the use of kava in patients with GAD, non-psychotic anxiety and other anxiety-related disorders.”
“…各类病人的焦虑症状均有显著改善。本次研究为泛焦虑症、非神经质焦虑和其他焦虑相关的患者食用kava的功效提供很好的证据依据。”
3. Why anxiety can be socially isolating
3. 焦虑导致社交中自闭的原因
Anxiety interferes with the ability to take other people’s perspective, new research reveals.
最新研究发现,焦虑会阻碍理解他人意图的能力。
Anxiety makes people focus more on themselves and reduces their empathy for others, psychologists have found.
心理学家已经发现,焦虑让人更多地关注自身,缺乏对他们的理解和同情。
The study’s results may help explain why anxiety can be such an isolating emotion.
此项研究结果也帮助解释了,为什么焦虑是一种自闭的情绪。
4. You can inherit anxiety from your parents
4. 焦虑可从父母中遗传
An over-active network of brain areas is central to how children inherit anxiety and depression from their parents.
大脑中一片过度活跃的神经网导致了儿童会从父母处沿袭焦虑和抑郁。
The network consists of three regions in the brain which work together to control the fear-response.
这片神经网跨越三个脑部区域,协同控制人们对恐惧的反应。
The study found that around 35% of the difference in anxiety was explained by family history.
研究表明大约35%的焦虑差异可解释为家庭历史原因。
5. Sedentary behaviour linked to anxiety
5. 久坐不动也和焦虑有关
Sitting down all day has been linked to increased anxiety, a new study finds.
最近一项研究发现,整天坐着不动也会增加焦虑。
Low energy activities like watching TV, working at a computer or playing electronic games may all be linked to anxiety.
例如看电视,电脑前伏案工作或打电话等低能耗的活动也可能与焦虑挂上钩。
The cause of the link could be down to disturbed sleep, poor metabolic health or social withdrawal.
两者的联系在于(此类活动)导致睡眠紊乱,新陈代谢不畅和与社会的脱节。
6. Social anxiety linked to higher serotonin levels
6. 社交焦虑可导致血清素升高
Social anxiety disorder is linked to higher levels of serotonin in the brain, not lower as previously thought.
与先前预期不同,社交焦虑导致大脑中更高的血清素含量。
People with social anxiety actually produce more of the neurotransmitter serotonin in their brains.
实际上,患有社交焦虑的人在大脑中会生产更多神经递质类的血清素。
The more serotonin they produce, the more anxious they become.
血清素的升高,会导致焦虑的加深。
The result is a surprise as social anxiety is often treated with SSRIs like Prozac, Paxil and Zoloft.
此实验完全出乎预期,因为此前社交焦虑症的治疗药物通常为SSRIs类药物,例如百忧解,Paxil和Zoloft。
SSRIs actually increase the levels of serotonin in the brain.
SSRIs实际作用为提高患者闹钟血清素的浓度。
7. Fermented foods can reduce social anxiety
7. 发酵食物能减轻社交焦虑
People who eat more fermented foods have lower social anxiety, a new study finds。
最新研究发现,食用较多发酵食物的人比较不容易的社交焦虑。
The benefit is particularly noticeable amongst people who are highly neurotic.
此研究成果对神经高度过敏的人及其有效。
Neurotic people are prone to anxiety.
神经质的人更容易焦虑。
Fermented foods that are a regular part of the Western diet include milk, cheese, yoghurt and bread.
发酵食物是西方食材较常见的一种,例如:牛奶,芝士,酸奶和发酵面包。
They typically contain probiotics, which are likely behind the benefit.
那些食物内含有的益生元,很可能就是起疗效的根本。
8. Anxiety is ‘contagious’
8. 焦虑是会“传染的”
Anxiety is ‘contagious’ and can be passed from parents to children and the other way, a new study finds.
近期一项实验表明,焦虑是会“传染的”,可以父母传染给孩子,反之亦可。
The ‘catching’ nature of anxious thoughts and behaviours exists over and above the effects of genetics.
“焦虑”的思维和行为的后天影响力,较先天基因影响要更“粘人”。
Anxious children can also pass on their anxiety to parents, even when they were not initially anxious.
即使父母本身没有焦虑的情况,焦虑的孩子也能将自身的焦虑传染给父母。
9. Prebiotic bacteria can reduce anxiety
9. 益生菌有助减轻焦虑
Consuming prebiotic bacteria can have an anti-anxiety effect, the first ever human study of its kind has found.
人类首次研究发现,食用益生菌群有抗抑郁的效果。
Researchers at the University of Oxford have discovered that prebiotic bacteria can reduce levels of anxiety in a clinical trial.
在临床试验中,牛津大学的研究人员发现益生菌能减轻焦虑症状。
Like foods containing probiotic bacteria, prebiotics are functional foods: they have benefits beyond their purely nutritional value.
含有益生菌的食物,其内所含的益生元就成了功能性食品:它们的保健作用已经超过它们的营养价值。
The positive influence of the prebiotic was similar to that obtained by taking existing anti-depressant or anti-anxiety drugs.
益生元的正面效用类似于服用现有抗抑郁或抗焦虑药物所产生的效果。
10.How exercise and relaxation help reduce anxiety
10.运动和放松有助于减轻焦虑
In treating social anxiety — discomfort or fear in social situations, often of being judged — both relaxation techniques and exercise have been found beneficial.
治疗社交焦虑中 – 那种在团体中不适或者恐惧的心理 – 通过放松和运动的方式,可以达到一定效果。
New research suggests this is because it changes the way people perceive the world.
新近调查发现,两者能改变人们对世界的感知。
After exercise or relaxation, people are less likely to interpret neutral social signals as threatening — something that people with social anxiety have a tendency to do.
运动或放松之后,人们更少的恶意理解中性的社交讯号 – 这是社交焦虑患者通常会做的事情。
 

 
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